The State of Rhode Island Public Education

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The cost

Our education system

In 2010, our General Assembly created a new formula for disbursing state education aid to school districts. Under this student-centered funding formula, districts receive a basic per-pupil funding amount for each enrolled student and an additional 40 percent of that amount for each low-income student. Of the total designated funding amount for each district, the state covers a portion with state revenues and the district covers a portion with local revenues; higher-wealth districts are responsible for a greater share of their total funding than lower-wealth districts. The state also offers a limited amount of additional funding to districts to cover expenses such as extraordinary special education costs, career and technical education programs and early childhood programs. The funding formula will not be fully phased in until 2020, and lawmakers are considering revisions to the formula in 2016.

With the spotlight cast on school funding in Rhode Island, RI-CAN recently issued a special State of Education report that contains a comprehensive overview of the school funding landscape across the state. Some of that data is highlighted below.

To access RI-CAN’s full State of Education: Spotlight on School Funding report, click here.

Expenditures

Like many states, per-pupil expenditures in Rhode Island have been growing over time. Our per-pupil spending is above the national average, but in line with regional peers.

Current expenditures per pupil for public elementary and secondary schools in Rhode Island (constant 2013–2014 dollars)
2001–2002
2004–2005
2007–2008
2010–2011
2013–2014

Notes:

  1. 2013–2014 data are from the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE), while data for years 2001–2002, 2004–2005, 2007–2008 and 2010–2011 are from the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). It was necessary to use two data sources due to data limitations on the RIDE website and because only the USDOE presents data in constant 2013–2014 dollars (i.e., only the USDOE adjusts for inflation over time). As a result of using two data sources, there may be discrepancies between 2013–2014 and earlier years based on differences in data classification and data collection methodology.
  2. Both RIDE data and USDOE data exclude capital expenditures and debt service expenditures and include public charter school expenditures. In Rhode Island, capital expenditures include any land and buildings that are capitalized (regardless of the value and useful life); infrastructure and building improvements that are capitalized at a cost of $1 million or more with a useful life of one year or more; and equipment that is capitalized at a cost of $5,000 or more. Debt service includes payments on debt obligations, including principal and interest payments.
  3. RIDE data excludes expenditures funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
  4. USDOE per-pupil expenditures are calculated using fall enrollment, while RIDE per-pupil expenditures are calculated using average daily membership (enrollment averaged over the course of the school year). Average daily membership is calculated by dividing the aggregate days of student membership (enrollment) by total school days.
Current expenditures per pupil for public elementary and secondary schools (Not adjusted for inflation)
 Value
1. District of Columbia
District of Columbia
$20,530Value
$20,530
2. New York
New York
$19,529Value
$19,529
3. New Jersey
New Jersey
$18,523Value
$18,523
4. Alaska
Alaska
$18,217Value
$18,217
5. Connecticut
Connecticut
$17,321Value
$17,321
6. Vermont
Vermont
$17,286Value
$17,286
7. Wyoming
Wyoming
$15,815Value
$15,815
8. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
$15,321Value
$15,321
9. Rhode Island
Rhode Island
$14,889Value
$14,889
10. Maryland
Maryland
$14,086Value
$14,086
11. New Hampshire
New Hampshire
$14,050Value
$14,050
12. Delaware
Delaware
$13,653Value
$13,653
13. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
$13,445Value
$13,445
14. Maine
Maine
$12,655Value
$12,655
15. Illinois
Illinois
$12,443Value
$12,443
T-16. Hawaii
Hawaii
$11,743Value
$11,743
T-16. Nebraska
Nebraska
$11,743Value
$11,743
18. North Dakota
North Dakota
$11,615Value
$11,615
19. Ohio
Ohio
$11,276Value
$11,276
20. West Virginia
West Virginia
$11,257Value
$11,257
21. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
$11,186Value
$11,186
22. Minnesota
Minnesota
$11,065Value
$11,065
23. Virginia
Virginia
$10,960Value
$10,960
United States
United States
$10,763Value
$10,763
24. Montana
Montana
$10,662Value
$10,662
25. Louisiana
Louisiana
$10,539Value
$10,539
26. Michigan
Michigan
$10,515Value
$10,515
27. Iowa
Iowa
$10,291Value
$10,291
28. Kansas
Kansas
$10,011Value
$10,011
29. Washington
Washington
$9,714Value
$9,714
30. Missouri
Missouri
$9,702Value
$9,702
31. Arkansas
Arkansas
$9,538Value
$9,538
32. South Carolina
South Carolina
$9,444Value
$9,444
33. Indiana
Indiana
$9,421Value
$9,421
34. Kentucky
Kentucky
$9,274Value
$9,274
35. California
California
$9,258Value
$9,258
36. Oregon
Oregon
$9,183Value
$9,183
37. New Mexico
New Mexico
$9,164Value
$9,164
38. Georgia
Georgia
$9,121Value
$9,121
39. Alabama
Alabama
$8,773Value
$8,773
40. Colorado
Colorado
$8,693Value
$8,693
41. South Dakota
South Dakota
$8,630Value
$8,630
42. Florida
Florida
$8,623Value
$8,623
43. Tennessee
Tennessee
$8,588Value
$8,588
44. North Carolina
North Carolina
$8,342Value
$8,342
45. Texas
Texas
$8,261Value
$8,261
46. Mississippi
Mississippi
$8,117Value
$8,117
47. Nevada
Nevada
$8,026Value
$8,026
48. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
$7,914Value
$7,914
49. Arizona
Arizona
$7,495Value
$7,495
50. Idaho
Idaho
$6,761Value
$6,761
51. Utah
Utah
$6,432Value
$6,432
 Value
1. District of Columbia
District of Columbia
$20,530Value
$20,530
2. New York
New York
$19,529Value
$19,529
3. New Jersey
New Jersey
$18,523Value
$18,523
4. Alaska
Alaska
$18,217Value
$18,217
5. Connecticut
Connecticut
$17,321Value
$17,321
6. Vermont
Vermont
$17,286Value
$17,286
7. Wyoming
Wyoming
$15,815Value
$15,815
8. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
$15,321Value
$15,321
9. Rhode Island
Rhode Island
$14,889Value
$14,889
10. Maryland
Maryland
$14,086Value
$14,086
11. New Hampshire
New Hampshire
$14,050Value
$14,050
12. Delaware
Delaware
$13,653Value
$13,653
13. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
$13,445Value
$13,445
14. Maine
Maine
$12,655Value
$12,655
15. Illinois
Illinois
$12,443Value
$12,443
T-16. Hawaii
Hawaii
$11,743Value
$11,743
T-16. Nebraska
Nebraska
$11,743Value
$11,743
18. North Dakota
North Dakota
$11,615Value
$11,615
 Value
19. Ohio
Ohio
$11,276Value
$11,276
20. West Virginia
West Virginia
$11,257Value
$11,257
21. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
$11,186Value
$11,186
22. Minnesota
Minnesota
$11,065Value
$11,065
23. Virginia
Virginia
$10,960Value
$10,960
United States
United States
$10,763Value
$10,763
24. Montana
Montana
$10,662Value
$10,662
25. Louisiana
Louisiana
$10,539Value
$10,539
26. Michigan
Michigan
$10,515Value
$10,515
27. Iowa
Iowa
$10,291Value
$10,291
28. Kansas
Kansas
$10,011Value
$10,011
29. Washington
Washington
$9,714Value
$9,714
30. Missouri
Missouri
$9,702Value
$9,702
31. Arkansas
Arkansas
$9,538Value
$9,538
32. South Carolina
South Carolina
$9,444Value
$9,444
33. Indiana
Indiana
$9,421Value
$9,421
34. Kentucky
Kentucky
$9,274Value
$9,274
35. California
California
$9,258Value
$9,258
 Value
36. Oregon
Oregon
$9,183Value
$9,183
37. New Mexico
New Mexico
$9,164Value
$9,164
38. Georgia
Georgia
$9,121Value
$9,121
39. Alabama
Alabama
$8,773Value
$8,773
40. Colorado
Colorado
$8,693Value
$8,693
41. South Dakota
South Dakota
$8,630Value
$8,630
42. Florida
Florida
$8,623Value
$8,623
43. Tennessee
Tennessee
$8,588Value
$8,588
44. North Carolina
North Carolina
$8,342Value
$8,342
45. Texas
Texas
$8,261Value
$8,261
46. Mississippi
Mississippi
$8,117Value
$8,117
47. Nevada
Nevada
$8,026Value
$8,026
48. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
$7,914Value
$7,914
49. Arizona
Arizona
$7,495Value
$7,495
50. Idaho
Idaho
$6,761Value
$6,761
51. Utah
Utah
$6,432Value
$6,432
 Value
1. New Jersey
New Jersey
$12,568Value
$12,568
2. New York
New York
$11,961Value
$11,961
3. District of Columbia
District of Columbia
$11,847Value
$11,847
4. Connecticut
Connecticut
$11,057Value
$11,057
5. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
$10,460Value
$10,460
6. Vermont
Vermont
$10,454Value
$10,454
7. Rhode Island
Rhode Island
$10,349Value
$10,349
8. Alaska
Alaska
$9,870Value
$9,870
9. Delaware
Delaware
$9,693Value
$9,693
10. Maine
Maine
$9,344Value
$9,344
11. Maryland
Maryland
$9,153Value
$9,153
12. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
$9,004Value
$9,004
13. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
$8,997Value
$8,997
14. Wyoming
Wyoming
$8,985Value
$8,985
15. Michigan
Michigan
$8,781Value
$8,781
16. Ohio
Ohio
$8,632Value
$8,632
17. New Hampshire
New Hampshire
$8,579Value
$8,579
18. West Virginia
West Virginia
$8,319Value
$8,319
19. Illinois
Illinois
$8,287Value
$8,287
20. Minnesota
Minnesota
$8,109Value
$8,109
21. Hawaii
Hawaii
$8,100Value
$8,100
22. Nebraska
Nebraska
$8,074Value
$8,074
23. Indiana
Indiana
$8,057Value
$8,057
United States
United States
$8,044Value
$8,044
24. Virginia
Virginia
$7,822Value
$7,822
25. Georgia
Georgia
$7,774Value
$7,774
26. Iowa
Iowa
$7,574Value
$7,574
27. California
California
$7,552Value
$7,552
28. Montana
Montana
$7,496Value
$7,496
29. Missouri
Missouri
$7,495Value
$7,495
30. Oregon
Oregon
$7,491Value
$7,491
31. Kansas
Kansas
$7,454Value
$7,454
32. Colorado
Colorado
$7,384Value
$7,384
33. Washington
Washington
$7,252Value
$7,252
34. Texas
Texas
$7,136Value
$7,136
35. New Mexico
New Mexico
$7,125Value
$7,125
36. South Carolina
South Carolina
$7,040Value
$7,040
37. Louisiana
Louisiana
$6,922Value
$6,922
38. North Dakota
North Dakota
$6,870Value
$6,870
39. Kentucky
Kentucky
$6,661Value
$6,661
40. North Carolina
North Carolina
$6,562Value
$6,562
41. South Dakota
South Dakota
$6,547Value
$6,547
42. Arkansas
Arkansas
$6,482Value
$6,482
43. Florida
Florida
$6,439Value
$6,439
44. Alabama
Alabama
$6,300Value
$6,300
45. Arizona
Arizona
$6,283Value
$6,283
46. Tennessee
Tennessee
$6,118Value
$6,118
T-47. Nevada
Nevada
$6,092Value
$6,092
T-47. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
$6,092Value
$6,092
49. Idaho
Idaho
$6,081Value
$6,081
50. Mississippi
Mississippi
$5,792Value
$5,792
51. Utah
Utah
$4,838Value
$4,838
 Value
1. New Jersey
New Jersey
$12,568Value
$12,568
2. New York
New York
$11,961Value
$11,961
3. District of Columbia
District of Columbia
$11,847Value
$11,847
4. Connecticut
Connecticut
$11,057Value
$11,057
5. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
$10,460Value
$10,460
6. Vermont
Vermont
$10,454Value
$10,454
7. Rhode Island
Rhode Island
$10,349Value
$10,349
8. Alaska
Alaska
$9,870Value
$9,870
9. Delaware
Delaware
$9,693Value
$9,693
10. Maine
Maine
$9,344Value
$9,344
11. Maryland
Maryland
$9,153Value
$9,153
12. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
$9,004Value
$9,004
13. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
$8,997Value
$8,997
14. Wyoming
Wyoming
$8,985Value
$8,985
15. Michigan
Michigan
$8,781Value
$8,781
16. Ohio
Ohio
$8,632Value
$8,632
17. New Hampshire
New Hampshire
$8,579Value
$8,579
18. West Virginia
West Virginia
$8,319Value
$8,319
 Value
19. Illinois
Illinois
$8,287Value
$8,287
20. Minnesota
Minnesota
$8,109Value
$8,109
21. Hawaii
Hawaii
$8,100Value
$8,100
22. Nebraska
Nebraska
$8,074Value
$8,074
23. Indiana
Indiana
$8,057Value
$8,057
United States
United States
$8,044Value
$8,044
24. Virginia
Virginia
$7,822Value
$7,822
25. Georgia
Georgia
$7,774Value
$7,774
26. Iowa
Iowa
$7,574Value
$7,574
27. California
California
$7,552Value
$7,552
28. Montana
Montana
$7,496Value
$7,496
29. Missouri
Missouri
$7,495Value
$7,495
30. Oregon
Oregon
$7,491Value
$7,491
31. Kansas
Kansas
$7,454Value
$7,454
32. Colorado
Colorado
$7,384Value
$7,384
33. Washington
Washington
$7,252Value
$7,252
34. Texas
Texas
$7,136Value
$7,136
35. New Mexico
New Mexico
$7,125Value
$7,125
 Value
36. South Carolina
South Carolina
$7,040Value
$7,040
37. Louisiana
Louisiana
$6,922Value
$6,922
38. North Dakota
North Dakota
$6,870Value
$6,870
39. Kentucky
Kentucky
$6,661Value
$6,661
40. North Carolina
North Carolina
$6,562Value
$6,562
41. South Dakota
South Dakota
$6,547Value
$6,547
42. Arkansas
Arkansas
$6,482Value
$6,482
43. Florida
Florida
$6,439Value
$6,439
44. Alabama
Alabama
$6,300Value
$6,300
45. Arizona
Arizona
$6,283Value
$6,283
46. Tennessee
Tennessee
$6,118Value
$6,118
T-47. Nevada
Nevada
$6,092Value
$6,092
T-47. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
$6,092Value
$6,092
49. Idaho
Idaho
$6,081Value
$6,081
50. Mississippi
Mississippi
$5,792Value
$5,792
51. Utah
Utah
$4,838Value
$4,838

Notes:

  1. Current expenditures exclude capital expenditures and debt service. In Rhode Island, capital expenditures include any land and buildings that are capitalized (regardless of the value and useful life); infrastructure and building improvements that are capitalized at a cost of $1 million or more with a useful life of one year or more; and equipment that is capitalized at a cost of $5,000 or more. The definition of capital expenditures varies between states. Debt service includes payments on debt obligations, including principal and interest payments.
  2. State disparities in current per-pupil expenditures may exist based on what states classify as current expenses (for example, states set different capitalization thresholds that determine which expenses qualify as capital outlays and which do not).
  3. Data for this graph are from the U.S. Department of Education.
Current expenditures per pupil by LEA

Notes:

  1. RI School for the Deaf is not included due to extraordinary special education costs. It’s annual curent per-pupil expenditure in 2013–2014 was $102,915.
  2. Current expenditures exclude capital expenditures and debt service. In Rhode Island, capital expenditures include any land and buildings that are capitalized (regardless of the value and useful life); infrastructure and building improvements that are capitalized at a cost of $1 million or more with a useful life of one year or more; and equipment that is capitalized at a cost of $5,000 or more. Debt service includes payments on debt obligations, including principal and interest payments.
Sources
  1. Introduction: “Funding Formula Summary,” Rhode Island Department of Education (2010), accessed November 13, 2015, http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Funding-and-Finance-Wise-Investments/Funding-Sources/State-Education-Aid-Funding-Formula/Funding-Formula-Summary-2-19-11-version.pdf.
  2. Graphs 1, 3: “RIDE’s Uniform Chart of Accounts: Annual Per Pupil Expenditure Reports,” Rhode Island Department of Education, accessed November 12, 2015, http://www.ride.ri.gov/FundingFinance/SchoolDistrictFinancialData/UniformChartofAccounts.aspx#18211075-annual-per-pupil-expenditure-reports.
  3. Graph 2: “Current expenditure per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by state or jurisdiction,” U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, accessed November 24, 2015, https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/.
  4. Graph notes: “Capital Budgeting in the States,” National Association of State Budget Officers (2014), accessed November 24, 2015, https://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/Capital%20Budgeting%20in%20the%20States.pdf.

Revenues

According to the most recent data, a majority of funding for Rhode Island schools comes from local sources. The distribution of funding sources varies between states, with some states providing the bulk of funding at the state level, and other states relying more heavily on school districts and municipalities to generate funding.

Percentage of revenues for public elementary and secondary schools by source
 FederalStateLocal
United States 9.3 45.2 45.5
Alabama 11.8 54.8 33.4
Alaska 12.1 68.5 19.3
Arizona 13.6 42.2 44.1
Arkansas 12.1 51.9 35.9
California 11.2 54.3 34.5
Colorado 7.9 42.3 49.9
Connecticut 4.4 39.5 56.2
Delaware 10.1 58.8 31.1
Florida 12.6 38.6 48.8
Georgia 10.7 43.6 45.8
Hawaii 13.3 84.2 2.5
Idaho 11.9 64 24
Illinois 8.6 26.1 65.3
Indiana 8.7 56 35.3
Iowa 7.8 51.7 40.5
Kansas 8.6 55.1 36.4
Kentucky 12.3 54.5 33.2
Louisiana 15.2 43.3 41.6
Maine 7.6 39.9 52.5
Maryland 6.0 44.2 49.8
Massachusetts 5.7 39.4 54.9
Michigan 9.8 58.7 31.5
Minnesota 6.3 64.5 29.2
Mississippi 16.1 50.4 33.5
Missouri 9 32.8 58.2
Montana 12.9 48.1 39
Nebraska 9.4 32 58.5
Nevada 9.7 33.7 56.5
New Hampshire 5.7 35.5 58.8
New Jersey 4.4 40.8 54.8
New Mexico 15.2 68.6 16.2
New York 5.5 40.1 54.4
North Carolina 12.6 62.2 25.2
North Dakota 11.8 51 37.3
Ohio 8.6 43.5 47.9
Oklahoma 12.4 49.2 38.5
Oregon 9.2 49.4 41.4
Pennsylvania 8 35.9 56.2
Rhode Island 8.7 38.9 52.4
South Carolina 10 46.4 43.6
South Dakota 15 31.2 53.8
Tennessee 13 45.7 41.3
Texas 11.7 40.2 48
Utah 9.2 52 38.7
Vermont 7.1 88.9 4
Virginia 7.3 38.9 53.7
Washington 8.6 59 32.4
West Virginia 10.7 59 30.3
Wisconsin 7.9 45 47.2
Wyoming 6.7 52 41.3
 FederalStateLocal
United States 9.3 45.2 45.5
Alabama 11.8 54.8 33.4
Alaska 12.1 68.5 19.3
Arizona 13.6 42.2 44.1
Arkansas 12.1 51.9 35.9
California 11.2 54.3 34.5
Colorado 7.9 42.3 49.9
Connecticut 4.4 39.5 56.2
Delaware 10.1 58.8 31.1
Florida 12.6 38.6 48.8
Georgia 10.7 43.6 45.8
Hawaii 13.3 84.2 2.5
Idaho 11.9 64 24
Illinois 8.6 26.1 65.3
Indiana 8.7 56 35.3
Iowa 7.8 51.7 40.5
Kansas 8.6 55.1 36.4
Kentucky 12.3 54.5 33.2
Louisiana 15.2 43.3 41.6
Maine 7.6 39.9 52.5
Maryland 6.0 44.2 49.8
Massachusetts 5.7 39.4 54.9
Michigan 9.8 58.7 31.5
Minnesota 6.3 64.5 29.2
Mississippi 16.1 50.4 33.5
Missouri 9 32.8 58.2
 FederalStateLocal
Montana 12.9 48.1 39
Nebraska 9.4 32 58.5
Nevada 9.7 33.7 56.5
New Hampshire 5.7 35.5 58.8
New Jersey 4.4 40.8 54.8
New Mexico 15.2 68.6 16.2
New York 5.5 40.1 54.4
North Carolina 12.6 62.2 25.2
North Dakota 11.8 51 37.3
Ohio 8.6 43.5 47.9
Oklahoma 12.4 49.2 38.5
Oregon 9.2 49.4 41.4
Pennsylvania 8 35.9 56.2
Rhode Island 8.7 38.9 52.4
South Carolina 10 46.4 43.6
South Dakota 15 31.2 53.8
Tennessee 13 45.7 41.3
Texas 11.7 40.2 48
Utah 9.2 52 38.7
Vermont 7.1 88.9 4
Virginia 7.3 38.9 53.7
Washington 8.6 59 32.4
West Virginia 10.7 59 30.3
Wisconsin 7.9 45 47.2
Wyoming 6.7 52 41.3
 FederalStateLocal
United States 8.5 48.7 42.8
Alabama 11.6 57.6 30.9
Alaska 17.7 56.8 25.5
Arizona 11.4 48.4 40.2
Arkansas 11.7 55.2 33.0
California 9.9 58.9 31.3
Colorado 6.5 43.1 50.4
Connecticut 5.2 37.4 57.4
Delaware 8.6 63.4 28.0
Florida 10.5 43.6 45.8
Georgia 8.1 48.2 43.7
Hawaii 8.2 90.1 1.7
Idaho 9.8 59.1 31.1
Illinois 8.5 33.0 58.5
Indiana 7.6 58.8 33.5
Iowa 7.4 46.6 46.0
Kansas 9.1 57.1 33.8
Kentucky 10.6 58.8 30.7
Louisiana 13.2 49.1 37.7
Maine 8.9 42.9 48.1
Maryland 6.7 38.3 55.0
Massachusetts 6.0 40.9 53.1
Michigan 7.8 63.3 28.9
Minnesota 5.9 73.8 20.2
Mississippi 15.4 53.8 30.8
Missouri 8.0 35.8 56.2
Montana 14.5 46.3 39.2
Nebraska 8.9 34.4 56.7
Nevada 7.0 30.2 62.8
New Hampshire 5.2 48.9 45.9
New Jersey 4.3 43.5 52.2
New Mexico 15.0 72.1 12.9
New York 7.0 45.6 47.5
North Carolina 9.6 63.7 26.7
North Dakota 15.3 36.8 47.9
Ohio 6.4 44.8 48.7
Oklahoma 12.7 54.7 32.6
Oregon 9.1 50.9 40.0
Pennsylvania 7.7 36.6 55.6
Rhode Island 6.5 42.0 51.5
South Carolina 9.8 48.1 42.1
South Dakota 15.7 33.7 50.6
Tennessee 10.0 43.8 46.1
Texas 9.9 40.9 49.2
Utah 9.3 56.4 34.3
Vermont 7.0 67.8 25.3
Virginia 6.6 39.6 53.8
Washington 9.0 61.8 29.2
West Virginia 10.6 61.4 27.9
Wisconsin 6.1 53.4 40.6
Wyoming 8.8 50.9 40.3
 FederalStateLocal
United States 8.5 48.7 42.8
Alabama 11.6 57.6 30.9
Alaska 17.7 56.8 25.5
Arizona 11.4 48.4 40.2
Arkansas 11.7 55.2 33.0
California 9.9 58.9 31.3
Colorado 6.5 43.1 50.4
Connecticut 5.2 37.4 57.4
Delaware 8.6 63.4 28.0
Florida 10.5 43.6 45.8
Georgia 8.1 48.2 43.7
Hawaii 8.2 90.1 1.7
Idaho 9.8 59.1 31.1
Illinois 8.5 33.0 58.5
Indiana 7.6 58.8 33.5
Iowa 7.4 46.6 46.0
Kansas 9.1 57.1 33.8
Kentucky 10.6 58.8 30.7
Louisiana 13.2 49.1 37.7
Maine 8.9 42.9 48.1
Maryland 6.7 38.3 55.0
Massachusetts 6.0 40.9 53.1
Michigan 7.8 63.3 28.9
Minnesota 5.9 73.8 20.2
Mississippi 15.4 53.8 30.8
Missouri 8.0 35.8 56.2
 FederalStateLocal
Montana 14.5 46.3 39.2
Nebraska 8.9 34.4 56.7
Nevada 7.0 30.2 62.8
New Hampshire 5.2 48.9 45.9
New Jersey 4.3 43.5 52.2
New Mexico 15.0 72.1 12.9
New York 7.0 45.6 47.5
North Carolina 9.6 63.7 26.7
North Dakota 15.3 36.8 47.9
Ohio 6.4 44.8 48.7
Oklahoma 12.7 54.7 32.6
Oregon 9.1 50.9 40.0
Pennsylvania 7.7 36.6 55.6
Rhode Island 6.5 42.0 51.5
South Carolina 9.8 48.1 42.1
South Dakota 15.7 33.7 50.6
Tennessee 10.0 43.8 46.1
Texas 9.9 40.9 49.2
Utah 9.3 56.4 34.3
Vermont 7.0 67.8 25.3
Virginia 6.6 39.6 53.8
Washington 9.0 61.8 29.2
West Virginia 10.6 61.4 27.9
Wisconsin 6.1 53.4 40.6
Wyoming 8.8 50.9 40.3
State and local revenues by district poverty level in Rhode Island
Highest poverty districts
2nd quartile
3rd quartile
Lowest poverty districts

Note: District poverty level is measured by the percentage of students who qualify for free or reduced-price lunch.

Sources
  1. Graph 1: "Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds and state or jurisdiction," U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics (search by year), last accessed June 20, 2016, https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/.
  2. Graph 2: “The State of Funding Equity Data Tool,” Education Trust (2015), accessed November 12, 2015, https://edtrust.org/map/.